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Imagine a world where the physical infrastructure that powers our daily lives – from the internet we browse, the energy we consume, to the sensors that make our cities smart – is not owned by a handful of corporations, but collectively by us, the people.
Welcome to the world of DePIN, or Decentralized Physical Infrastructure Networks.
It is a revolutionary concept that leverages the power of blockchain and Web3 technologies to decentralize the ownership and operation of tangible infrastructure. It’s a bold new step in the evolution of our digital world, a shift from the centralized systems of Web2 to the decentralized, user-centric ethos of Web3 and DePIN.
- It revolutionizes material infrastructure with blockchain technology.
- It offers faster build-up, local market alignment, cost-effectiveness, scalability, and collective ownership.
- Plays a crucial role in IoT, enabling token incentivized physical networks and secure data sharing.
- Faces challenges from Web2 giants, legacy competition, and mobile content production.
- Has significant potential in emerging Web3 markets and projected market growth.
But it’s not just a theoretical concept. It’s a rapidly evolving field that has its roots in the MachineFi movement, which sought to bring the benefits of finance and economics to machine networks. It takes this idea a step further, applying it not just to machines, but to all forms of concrete infrastructure.
In this brave new world, anyone can become a part of the network, contributing their resources and reaping the rewards. It’s a world where the power of the collective is harnessed to build a more equitable, efficient, and resilient infrastructure.
So, are you ready to explore a future where you’re not just a consumer of services, but an active participant in building the infrastructure that powers them? Then read on, because the revolution is just getting started.
Table Of Contents
- Components of DePIN
- Working Mechanism of DePIN
- DePIN’s Impact and Future
- Sectors and Main Players
- Projected Market Size of DePIN
- Benefits of DePIN
- Challenges and Trends in DePIN
- DePIN and IoT: A Synergistic Connection
- Case Studies of DePIN Projects
- The Future of DePIN
- Emerging Web3 Markets and DePIN
- The Multiplier Effect in DePIN
- Finally: The Transformative Potential of DePIN and the Road Ahead
Components of DePIN
This revolutionary approach is a complex system, but at its core, it’s built on four key components:
- the real infrastructure network,
- off-chain compute infrastructure,
- blockchain architecture,
- and token incentives.
Let’s break down each of these components and see how they work together to create a DePIN.
Physical Infrastructure Network
The actual infrastructure network is the backbone of it. It consists of the actual physical devices and systems that provide a service. For example, in decentralized wireless networks like Helium, the physical infrastructure includes the individual hotspots that people install in their homes or businesses.
These hotspots provide wireless coverage for IoT devices in their vicinity, creating a decentralized network that is collectively owned and operated by the hotspot owners.
Off-Chain Compute Infrastructure
While the solid infrastructure network provides the service, the off-chain compute infrastructure is what enables the network to function efficiently and effectively. This includes servers, databases, and other computing resources that process and store data from the physical infrastructure.
In the case of Filecoin, a decentralized storage network, the off-chain compute infrastructure includes the individual hard drives and servers that store data for the network.
The blockchain architecture is what ensures the transparency, security, and decentralization of DePIN networks.
It’s a distributed ledger that records all transactions and interactions on the network, ensuring that everyone has access to the same information and that no single entity has control over the network.
For example, both Helium and Filecoin use blockchain technology to track the contribution of each participant and to distribute rewards fairly and transparently.
Token incentives are a crucial component of this concept. They provide the motivation for individuals and businesses to contribute their resources to the network. In a DePIN, participants are rewarded with tokens for providing a service.
These tokens can be traded for other currencies, used to purchase services on the network, or held as an investment. If we look at the Helium network, hotspot owners are rewarded with Helium tokens for providing wireless coverage.
Together, these four components create a DePIN – a decentralized network that is collectively owned and operated by its participants, powered by blockchain technology, and incentivized through a system of token rewards.
It’s a new way of building and operating infrastructure, and it’s already being used in real-world applications by companies like the Helium Network, IoTEX and Filecoin.
Working Mechanism of DePIN
Understanding the working mechanism of it involves looking at the roles of both supply-side participants and demand-side users, as well as the cycle of network growth and adoption. Let’s delve into each of these aspects:
Role of Supply-Side Participants
Supply-side participants are the individuals or entities that provide the resources or services in a DePIN. They contribute to the physical infrastructure network and off-chain compute infrastructure.
In the Helium network, supply-side participants are the owners of hotspots, who provide wireless coverage for IoT devices. In return for their contribution, they receive Helium tokens as a reward.
On the other side of the equation are the demand-side users. These are the individuals or entities that use the services provided by the DePIN. In the case of Filecoin, demand-side users are those who need storage space for their data.
They pay for this service using Filecoin tokens. The interaction between supply-side participants and demand-side users is facilitated by the blockchain architecture, which ensures transparency and fairness.
The Network Growth and Adoption Cycle
The growth and adoption of this concept follows a cycle that is driven by both supply-side participants and demand-side users. As more supply-side participants join the network and contribute their resources, the capacity and coverage of the network increase.
This attracts more demand-side users, who bring more usage and value to the network.
|1||Supply-side participants||Join the network and contribute resources||Increase in network capacity and coverage|
|2||Demand-side users||Attracted by increased capacity and coverage||Increase in network usage and value|
|3||Supply-side participants||Attracted by increased usage and value||Further increase in network capacity and coverage|
|4||Both supply-side participants and demand-side users||Motivated by token rewards||Sustained participation and growth of the network|
In turn, this increased usage and value attract more supply-side participants, creating a positive feedback loop that drives the growth and adoption of the network. This cycle is incentivized by token rewards, which motivate both supply-side participants and demand-side users to participate in the network.
A real-world example of this cycle can be seen in the Helium network. As more people install Helium hotspots, the coverage of the wireless network expands, attracting more IoT devices that need wireless connectivity.
The increased usage of the network then attracts more people to install hotspots, driving the growth and adoption of the network.
The working mechanism involves a symbiotic relationship between supply-side participants and demand-side users, facilitated by blockchain technology and incentivized by token rewards.
This mechanism drives the growth and adoption of the network, as seen in real-world DePINs like Helium and Filecoin.
DePIN’s Impact and Future
The Potential in the Context of the Growing Number of Smart Devices and Sensors
As the number of smart devices and sensors continues to grow, so does the need for a robust and scalable infrastructure to support them. This is where DePIN comes in. By decentralizing the ownership and operation of real-world infrastructure, it can provide a more scalable and resilient solution for the IoT era.
Take the example of Helium, a decentralized wireless network. By incentivizing individuals to install hotspots in their homes or businesses, Helium has been able to rapidly expand its network coverage, providing connectivity for a growing number of IoT devices.
This decentralized approach allows the network to scale organically with the demand, without the need for large upfront investments in infrastructure.
The Paradigm Shift it Represents in the Deployment and Operation of Physical Infrastructure
It represents a paradigm shift in the way we deploy and operate real infrastructure. Instead of relying on a centralized entity to build and maintain infrastructure, it leverages the power of the crowd, allowing anyone to become a part of the network and contribute their resources.
Advantages of the DePin Shift
- It allows for faster and more cost-effective deployment of infrastructure, as it doesn’t require large upfront investments.
- It enables better alignment with local market needs, as the people who use the infrastructure are also the ones who build and maintain it.
- It introduces a new level of transparency and fairness to the operation of tangible infrastructure.
- Through the use of blockchain technology, all transactions and interactions on the network are recorded on a transparent ledger, ensuring that everyone is rewarded fairly for their contribution.
If we look ahead, the impact is expected to grow as more sectors start to adopt this model. From wireless networks to energy grids, storage networks, and even mobility, the potential applications of it are vast and varied.
With its unique combination of decentralization, blockchain technology, and token incentives, it is paving the way for a future where the deployment and operation of real world infrastructure are more scalable, resilient, and fair.
Sectors and Main Players
Diving deeper into the world of DePIN, it’s important to understand the different sectors (which you can see in this sector map by DePIN Messari) where this revolutionary concept is being applied and the main players driving its adoption.
Let’s explore these sectors and their key players:
One of the earliest applications of DePIN has been in the realm of cloud and storage networks. These networks leverage the unused storage capacity of individual devices to create a decentralized, peer-to-peer storage solution. Filecoin is a prime example of this, where individuals can rent out their unused storage space to others and earn Filecoin tokens in return.
They are another key sector to look at. Here, individuals contribute their wireless coverage to create a decentralized network. Helium is a leading player in this space, with its network of hotspots providing wireless coverage for IoT devices.
Sensor networks are a growing sector in this new landscape. These networks leverage the power of decentralized sensors to collect and share data. IoTeX, a decentralized platform for the Internet of Things, is a notable player in this sector. It uses DePIN to connect physical devices to the blockchain, allowing them to interact and exchange data in a secure and transparent manner.
The IoTeX platform hosts an ever-growing ecosystem of projects and products developed by members of the IoTeX crypto community, including Ucam, a blockchain-powered home security camera, and Pebble, a secure IoT prototyping platform.
Below you will find an image which illustrates the landscape of consumer-facing projects.
Energy networks represent another promising application of DePIN. In these networks, individuals can generate and share renewable energy, creating a decentralized energy grid. Power Ledger is a pioneer in this space, enabling peer-to-peer energy trading on its blockchain platform.
Mobility as the 5th Sector
Mobility is emerging as the 5th DePIN sector, with potential applications in areas like vehicle sharing and autonomous transportation. While this sector is still in its early stages, it represents a significant opportunity.
In each of these sectors, it is transforming the way we deploy and operate concrete infrastructure, shifting from a centralized model to a decentralized, collectively owned one. The main network members in these sectors, like Filecoin, Helium, IoTeX, and Power Ledger, are leading the way in this transformation, demonstrating the potential of it in real-world applications.
Projected Market Size of DePIN
The future of the market is not just promising; it’s projected to be colossal. Moving towards a more connected world, the demand for decentralized physical infrastructure networks (depin) is expected to skyrocket.
This surge in demand is not only driven by the increasing adoption of IoT devices and the evolution of blockchain technology but also by the active participation of network participants who contribute to the growth and maintenance of these networks.
According to industry analyses from Grand View Research and MarketsandMarkets, the global DePIN market size, valued at around USD 64 billion in 2021, is expected to experience exponential growth. Grand View Research predicts a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 54.2% from 2022 to 2028.
Similarly, Markets and Markets forecasts its market to grow from USD 64.2 billion in 2021 to a staggering USD 620.2 billion by 2028, marking a CAGR of 40.8% during the forecast period.
This growth is propelled by several factors, including the increasing adoption of IoT devices, the evolution of blockchain technology, and the pressing need for decentralized infrastructure across sectors such as energy, telecommunications, and transportation.
However, these projections might be on the conservative side. The number of IoT devices worldwide is expected to surge in the coming years. Statista predicts that by 2025, there will be more than 75 billion IoT connected devices in use, nearly tripling the IoT installed base in 2019.
As the number of IoT devices multiplies, so does the need for decentralized infrastructure to support them, potentially driving the market to dimensions much larger than current projections.
The graph below illustrates the projected number of IoT connected devices worldwide from 2015 to 2025:
Projected Number of IoT Connected Devices Worldwide (2015-2025)
The steady increase in the number of IoT devices over the years indicates a growing demand for infrastructure to support these devices. This trend is likely to fuel the growth of the DePIN market in the coming years.
In essence, the market size is projected to grow significantly, driven by the increasing adoption of IoT devices and the need for decentralized infrastructure. However, the actual market size could be much larger than current projections due to the exponential growth of IoT devices.
Benefits of DePIN
The benefits are immense, and they are transforming the way we think about and interact with actual infrastructure. Here are some of the key benefits:
Faster Infrastructure Build-Up
It allows for faster infrastructure build-up by leveraging the power of the crowd. Instead of relying on a single entity to build and maintain infrastructure, it enables anyone to contribute their resources, leading to faster and more efficient infrastructure deployment.
Helium, a decentralized wireless network, has been able to rapidly expand its network coverage by incentivizing individuals to install hotspots in their homes or businesses.
Better Alignment with Local Market Needs
By decentralizing the ownership and operation of physical infrastructure, DePIN can better align with local market needs. The people who use the infrastructure are also the ones who build and maintain it, ensuring that the infrastructure meets the specific needs of the local market.
This is in contrast to traditional infrastructure projects, which are often managed by distant entities with little understanding of local needs.
It can also be more cost-effective than traditional infrastructure. Because it leverages existing resources (like unused storage space or wireless coverage), it can avoid the large upfront costs associated with traditional infrastructure projects. This makes it an attractive option for developing regions where resources are scarce.
Scalability Across Jurisdictions
It is not bound by geographical or jurisdictional boundaries. This means it can scale across different regions and countries, providing a truly global infrastructure solution. This is particularly beneficial for applications like IoT, which require a global network to function effectively.
Credibly Neutral and Collectively Owned Networks
One of the key principles of DePIN is that the networks are credibly neutral and collectively owned. This ensures that no single entity has undue control over the network, and that all participants are rewarded fairly for their contributions. This is made possible by blockchain technology, which provides a transparent and immutable record of all transactions on the network.
Support for Frictionless Micropayments and Integration with DeFi
Finally, itsupports frictionless micropayments and can be easily integrated with DeFi (Decentralized Finance) applications. This opens up new possibilities for monetizing physical infrastructure and provides a new source of income for participants in the network.
DePIN offers a range of benefits that make it a compelling alternative to traditional physical infrastructure. From faster infrastructure build-up to better alignment with local market needs, cost-effectiveness, scalability, neutrality, collective ownership, and integration with DeFi, it is poised to revolutionize the way we deploy and operate physical infrastructure.
Challenges and Trends in DePIN
Competition with Web2 Giants
The world of DePIN is not without its challenges. As with any new technology, it faces competition from established web2 giants. These giants have the advantage of existing infrastructure, user bases, and capital.
However, its decentralized nature and the potential for a more equitable distribution of resources and rewards present a compelling alternative.
One example of this competition is seen in the realm of decentralized gaming. Axie Infinity, a play-to-earn crypto game, has been generating more revenue than popular dApps like PancakeSwap and MetaMask.
Over the past month, Axie Infinity has raked in $84.9 million in funds for its treasury, while PancakeSwap and MetaMask earned $11.9 million and $7.4 million respectively. This revenue is generated via fees for interacting with each protocol.
Axie Infinity, however, has several revenue streams that have helped prop up its heady revenue figure, including a 4.25% marketplace fee and a fee for “breeding” Axies to create more of the creatures.
Even in something we use every day it has the potential of transforming how consumers purchase broadband access. Instead of relying on traditional, centralized internet service providers, it could enable a decentralized marketplace where consumers can purchase broadband access directly from a network of providers. This could increase competition, lower prices, and improve access to high-quality internet.
Need for Professionalization and Disruption of Legacy Competition
Another challenge is the need for professionalization and effort to disrupt legacy competition. This requires not only technological innovation but also the building of communities and ecosystems that can support and sustain these new networks.
Shift Towards Mobile Traffic and Decentralized Content Production
Finally, a significant trend is the shift towards mobile traffic and decentralized content production and consumption. This trend is driven by the increasing ubiquity of smartphones and the growing demand for user-generated content and personalized experiences.
This shift presents both opportunities and challenges for DePIN, as it requires designing networks that can handle high volumes of mobile traffic and provide a seamless user experience.
DePIN and IoT: A Synergistic Connection
As the Underlying Infrastructure for IoT
The Internet of Things is a network of interconnected devices that collect and exchange data. It serves as the underlying infrastructure for IoT, providing the necessary network coverage and connectivity.
For instance, Helium, a decentralized wireless network, has created a global, distributed network of hotspots that provide coverage for IoT devices. As of now, there are over 936,022 hotspots, demonstrating the scalability of it in supporting the best IoT applications.
Role of Token Incentives in IoT Device Deployment
Token incentives play a crucial role in the deployment of IoT devices in a DePIN. Participants are rewarded with tokens for contributing their resources to the network, such as providing network coverage or storage space. This incentivizes more people to join the network, leading to a larger and more robust infrastructure for IoT devices.
Potential of DePIN for Data Collection and Sharing in IoT
It also has significant potential for data collection and sharing in IoT. With a decentralized network, data can be collected from a wide range of sources and shared securely and transparently. This can lead to more accurate and comprehensive data sets, which can be used to improve IoT applications and services.
Importance of DePIN for Interoperability and Standardization in IoT
Interoperability and standardization are key challenges in IoT, due to the wide variety of devices and technologies involved. It can help address these challenges by providing a common infrastructure and protocol for all devices, regardless of their manufacturer or technology. This can greatly simplify the integration of different devices and services in IoT.
Real-World Use Cases of DePIN in IoT
There are already several real-world use cases of DePIN in IoT. For example, Helium is being used by various companies for applications such as water usage monitoring, leak detection, asset tracking, and more.
These examples demonstrate its practical benefits in IoT, and suggest a promising future for this synergistic connection.
Case Studies of DePIN Projects
Helium: A Network for Wireless Infrastructure
Helium is a decentralized wireless infrastructure network that allows devices to send data to the internet without the need for cellular plans or Wi-Fi. The network is powered by the Helium Blockchain and a new incentive model enabled by the Helium (HNT) token.
Helium’s model encourages individuals to deploy Hotspots, which simultaneously mine HNT and provide public, long-range wireless coverage for IoT devices.
Filecoin: A P2P Storage Network
Filecoin is a decentralized storage system that aims to “store humanity’s most important information”. The network achieves this by using blockchain technology to create a data storage marketplace that is robust and highly competitive.
Users pay to store their files on storage miners, who are computers responsible for storing files and proving they have done so. The Filecoin blockchain records the transactions, and miners earn Filecoin tokens for their efforts.
IoTeX: Connecting the Physical World, Block by Block
IoTeX is a decentralized platform designed to empower the open economics for machines – an open ecosystem where machines can interact with each other with trust and free will. It leverages blockchain technology to increase the transparency and efficiency of these interactions.
IoTeX’s vision is to underpin the new era of Internet of Things (IoT), enabling all physical and virtual “things” to connect, interact, and exchange value autonomously, like their project with SolarDex.
Arweave: A New Type of Storage
Arweave is a new type of storage that backs data with sustainable and perpetual endowments, allowing users and developers to truly store data forever. It’s a collectively owned hard drive that never forgets. Arweave allows you to store documents and applications forever.
Sia: Decentralized Cloud Storage
Sia is a decentralized cloud storage platform that uses blockchain technology to create a data storage marketplace that is more robust and more affordable than traditional cloud storage providers.
Sia leverages underutilized hard drive capacity around the world to create a data storage marketplace that is more reliable and lower cost than traditional cloud storage providers.
Storj: Decentralized Cloud Object Storage
Storj is an open-source platform that leverages blockchain technology to create a fast and secure decentralized cloud object storage service. It allows users to store data in a secure and decentralized manner. It’s easy to use, highly secure, and great for developers.
Hivemapper: Building a Better Map, Together
Hivemapper is a decentralized mapping network that uses blockchain technology and a unique crypto token, HONEY, to incentivize contributors. The network allows contributors to earn HONEY tokens by mapping new areas, reviewing others’ work, and ensuring consistent quality standards of the data produced.
Hivemapper represents a fundamental shift in how maps are built, moving away from monopolies and governments that take our data for free, towards a community-driven approach.
Other Notable Projects
There are also other notable projects in the DePIN space such as Pollen Robotics, React, and Arkree, each contributing to the development and adoption of decentralized physical infrastructure networks in their unique ways.
The Future of DePIN
A Significant Narrative in Crypto
The advent of blockchain technology has revolutionized several industries, from finance (DeFi) and gaming (GameFi) to Web2 brands such as Nike for digital fashion and Starbucks for Web3 customer loyalty.
However, one area that has remained essentially unchanged is physical infrastructure. This is where it comes into play.
They are an emerging crypto trend that leverages blockchain technology to build and operate real-world physical infrastructure and hardware networks in a permissionless, trustless, and programmatic way.
Given that there are already over 40 billion smart devices and machines, and trillions of sensors deployed worldwide, the future of DePIN is bright. As the demand for decentralized infrastructure continues to grow, more and more individuals and companies will look to build it into their networks.
Investing in DePIN Projects: A Word of Caution
While the potential of these networks is immense, it’s important to approach investment in its projects with careful research and consideration. As with any investment, there are risks involved.
The success of a DePIN project depends on a variety of factors, including the strength of its technology, the robustness of its network, and the demand for its services.
The space is still relatively new and evolving. This means that regulatory frameworks may not be fully developed, and there may be uncertainties regarding the legal and regulatory implications of participating in or investing in relevant projects.
Therefore, potential investors should conduct thorough due diligence and possibly seek advice from financial advisors before making investment decisions.
Emerging Web3 Markets and DePIN
The Shift from Web2 to Web3
Transitioning from Web2 to Web3, a new era of the internet is emerging. Web3, also known as the decentralized internet, is a vision for a fully functional and user-friendly internet ecosystem that operates without the need for intermediaries.
This new internet model is built on blockchain technology, which allows for the creation of decentralized applications (dApps) and services that are owned and operated by the users themselves.
In this new paradigm, data is no longer controlled by centralized entities, but rather by the users who generate it. This shift is expected to create new markets and opportunities, particularly in sectors such as finance, entertainment, and social media.
For instance, decentralized finance (DeFi) and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are already disrupting traditional financial systems and the art world, respectively.
The Potential of DePIN in Emerging Web3 Markets
In the context of these emerging Web3 markets, it has the potential to play a significant role. DePIN, or Decentralized Physical Infrastructure Networks, leverages blockchain technology to build and operate real-world infrastructure and hardware networks in a permissionless, trustless, and programmatic way.
As the demand for decentralized infrastructure continues to grow, it could serve as the underlying infrastructure for these emerging Web3 markets.
It could provide the tangible infrastructure needed for the operation of decentralized data centers, which could host the servers for dApps and other Web3 services.
It could also facilitate the deployment of IoT devices, which are expected to play a crucial role in the Web3 ecosystem.
By providing a decentralized and scalable infrastructure for IoT devices, it could enable the collection and sharing of data in a secure and efficient manner, thereby supporting the development of data-driven Web3 services.
The Multiplier Effect in DePIN
Energy Storage and Vehicle Charging DePINs: A Boost for Vehicle and Ride Sharing Markets
The establishment of energy storage and vehicle charging DePINs could have a significant multiplier effect on the vehicle and ride-sharing markets. Transitioning to a more sustainable future, electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming increasingly popular.
However, one of the main challenges facing the widespread adoption of EVs is the lack of charging infrastructure.
By leveraging it, we can decentralize the deployment and operation of EV charging stations, making them more accessible and efficient. This could not only boost the adoption of EVs but also stimulate the growth of the vehicle and ride-sharing markets.
Ride-sharing companies could leverage these decentralized charging networks to ensure their fleets are always charged and ready to go, thereby improving their service and efficiency.
AI and DePIN: A Match Made in Efficiency
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to bring about significant efficiency increases in DePIN projects. One such project is Fetch.ai, which leverages AI and blockchain technology to create a decentralized digital world where autonomous software agents perform useful economic work.
These agents can work on behalf of individuals, machines, and organizations, performing tasks such as data fetching, complex problem-solving, and transaction negotiations. By automating these tasks, Fetch.ai aims to optimize and streamline various processes, from supply chain operations to finance and travel.
In the context of DePIN, AI can be used to optimize the deployment and operation of material infrastructure networks.
AI algorithms can analyze data from various sources to determine the optimal locations for deploying new infrastructure or to predict when existing infrastructure might need maintenance or upgrades.
This could significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of its projects, thereby contributing to their success and adoption.
Finally: The Transformative Potential of DePIN and the Road Ahead
As we’ve explored throughout this crypto report Decentralized Physical Networks represent a transformative shift in the way we build and operate tangible infrastructure.
By leveraging blockchain technology, it allows for the decentralized deployment and operation of physical networks, from wireless and storage networks to sensor and energy networks.
The transformative potential of this is immense. It could revolutionize various sectors, from telecommunications and data storage to energy and transportation. For instance, projects like Helium and Filecoin are already demonstrating how DePIN can disrupt traditional models of wireless connectivity and data storage, respectively.
However, the road to widespread adoption is not without challenges. These include competition with Web2 giants, the need for professionalization, and the shift towards mobile traffic and decentralized content production and consumption. Overcoming these challenges will require innovative solutions, robust technology, and a supportive regulatory environment.
Despite these challenges, the opportunities ahead are vast. As we transition from Web2 to Web3, DePIN could play a crucial role in supporting the emerging Web3 markets. With the growing number of smart devices and sensors, the demand for decentralized infrastructure is expected to increase, further driving the growth of the market space.
In terms of market size, the potential is staggering. As per the data gathered, the projected market size could reach $35 trillion by 2028. However, factors such as the establishment of energy storage and vehicle charging DePINs, and the efficiency increases brought by AI, could make the market much larger than current projections.
While the journey of DePIN is just beginning, its potential is undeniable.